Curtin, ‘Medical degree and you can metropolitan think within the exotic Africa’, AHR, 90, step three (June 1985), 594-613; Raymond F

Curtin, ‘Medical degree and you can metropolitan think within the exotic Africa’, AHR, 90, step three (June 1985), 594-613; Raymond F

Curtin, ‘Medical degree and you can metropolitan think within the exotic Africa’, AHR, 90, step three (June 1985), 594-613; Raymond F

Grillot, ‘Dans le Haut-Congo Fran9ais \ MC (step one9step one4), step one40-step one

96 AOM, AP648, Decree to your production of good Commune within Brazzaville, 5 Oct 1911; address off Governor-General Merlin, BCAF, 10 (1910), 331; AOM, 4(2)D7, Annual declaration out of Moyen-Congo, Brazzaville, 1911. 97 Girard, ‘Brazzaville’, 36. 98 Mandat-Grancey, Bien au Congo, 182. 99 Veistroffer, Vingt arts, 103; Baratier, Bien au Congo, 121. one hundred Colonel Moll, Une dme de- colonial: lettres du Lieutenant-Colonel Moll (Paris, Emile-Paul, 1912), 10; Deschamps, De Bordeaux bien au Tchad, 22-5; Frey, ‘Brazzaville’, 44-6; Girard, ‘Brazzaville’, step three2-3, step three 8 ^ 0 . 101 To have urban tissues in colonial Africa, pick, Philip D. Betts, Unclear size: western to another country empires in the twentieth century (Minneapolis: University away from Minnesota Drive, 1985), 114-46; Odile Goerg, ‘Reflexion sur l’architecture europeenne ce long de- la cote africaine good partir de- l’exemple de la Guinee’, within the Almeida-Topor and you may Riesz (eds.), Rencontres franco-allemandes sur VAfrique, 81-92; and Gwendolyn Wright, ‘Tradition on the solution regarding modernity: tissues and you can urbanism for the French colonial coverage, 1900-1930’, Record of contemporary Background, 59 (June 1987), 291-316. 102 Girard, ‘Brazzaville’, 34. 103 For the records and need for the new Fourteenth away from July when you look at the Brazzaville, find Phyllis M. Martin, ‘National getaways turned: the fresh fourteenth from July for the Brazzaville’, paper displayed from the 30-seventh annual fulfilling of one’s African Degree Association, Toronto, ps, ‘Rapport sur la part de- Brazzaville’. 105 Girard, ‘Brazzaville’, thirty six. 106 Address out-of Governor-Standard Merlin, BCAF, ten (1910), 337. 107 Gabrielle and you will Joseph Vassal, Franfais, Beige et Portugais en Afrique Equatoriale (Paris: Pierre Roger, 1926), 42. 108 Headrick, ‘The perception out of colonialism into health’, 221. 109 Curtin, ‘Medical education and you can metropolitan planning’, 594-eight. 110 Ibid., 598-609; along with Headrick, ‘The perception of colonialism with the health’, 143-4, 801-dos. 111 Bonchamps, ‘Rapport sur la part de- Brazzaville’. 112 Frey, ‘Brazzaville’, 44; Sautter, De- VAtlantique aufleuve Congo, vol. We, 398. 113 Challaye, Le Congo Franfais, 219. 114 JO, ps, ‘Rapport en ce qui concerne la area de Brazzaville’; and additionally AOM, 4(2)D1, Brazzaville Officer so you’re able to Administrator-Standard when you look at the Libreville, thirteen July 1901. 116 Quoted in the Headrick, ‘The feeling away from colonialism into health’, 383. 117 JO, 20 May 1905. 118 AGPSE, 510BVI, Annual records ‘Oeuvres de- la Sainte-Enfance’, twenty four October 1901,1 January 1903,10 November 1912. 119 Girard, ‘Brazzaville’, 42. Chikouangue is a mention of the manioc bread. 120 AOM, TP152, initial show, Objective Fillon, Statement from Yards. Henri for the Brazzaville staff, 1913. 121 Girard, ‘Brazzaville’, 38-nine.

Fehderau, The origin and you will development of Kituba (Lingua Franca Kikongo) (Kisangani: Universite Libre du Congo, 1966) signifies that Kituba try a vocabulary from the slave-trade; William J

122 AGPSE, B706, Brazzaville Goal Record, 30 Can get 1908; Roentgen. P. C. 123 Girard, ‘Brazzaville’, 38-nine. 124 Select, eg, J.-P. Chretien and you will Grams. Prunier (eds.), Les ethnies ont une histoire (Paris: Karthala, 1989); Leroy Vail (ed.), Producing tribalism for the south Africa (London: James Currey, 1989; Chris Grey, Adaptation and social name: the manufacture of federal space inside the rural France and you can colonial room from inside the outlying Gabon (Bloomington: Indiana University Focus on Internationally Changes and you can Business Comfort, 1994); Terence Ranger, The new invention regarding tradition into the colonial Africa’, in the Hobsbawm and you will Ranger (eds.), The brand new creativity out of community, 211-62, he keeps revised as creativity out of lifestyle revisited: the situation out of colonial Africa’, inside the Terence Ranger and you may Olufemi Vaughan (eds.), Validity in addition to county inside 20th millennium Africa (London: Macmillan, 1993), 62-111. On update away from their essay, Ranger could have been swayed, and others, from the Benedict Anderson, Thought communities: reflections towards the origins and you will pass on away from nationalism (London: Verso, 1983). 125 Harold W. Samarin, This new roots away from Kituba and you can Lingala’, Log off African Languages and you may Linguistics, twelve, 1 (Sep 1991), 47-77, signifies that the diffusion try alot more connected with foreign train professionals on the lower Congo. 126 ASMF, Age l l . Brev fran Kongo, Lindgren to help you SMF, 18 October 1911; B and you will Elizabeth. zero. 1, Korr., Lindgren in order to SMF, eleven November 1911; F. zero. 1, Dagbok, twenty-two February 1914; Brev fran Kongo, G. A beneficial. Hult so you’re able to SMF, eleven January 1918. 127 Message out of Governor-Standard Merlin, BCAF, 10 (1910), 337. 128 Girard, ‘Brazzaville’, 38-9; AOM, 4(2)D13, Statement regarding the Pond region, Brazzaville, Will get 1913. 129 Mumbansa mwa Bawele, ‘Y a beneficial-t-il de l’ensemble des Bangalas?’ Zaire-Afrique, 78 (arin, ‘The roots regarding Kituba and Lingala’, 47, 57-69, and you will ‘Bondjo ethnicity and you can colonial imagination’, Canadian Record regarding African Knowledge, 18 (1984), 345-65. 130 ‘Brazzaville’, BPSE, 25 (1909-10), 511; AGPSE, B706, Brazzaville Purpose Journal, 31 Could possibly get 1908,twenty-five September 1910,step 1 December 1913. 131 Find sections step three and you will 4. 132 Grillot, ‘Dans ce Haut-Congo Francais’, 139; ‘Brazzaville’, BCPSE, twenty seven (1913-14), 55; P. Augouard, Quarante-quatre annees bien au Congo (Evreux: Poussin, 1934), fifty, 72-step three,105. 133 Girard,’Brazzaville’, 31, 31. 134 AOM, 4(2)D5, Administrative report, Moyen-Congo, September-November 1910. 135 Frederick Cooper, ‘Urban space, commercial time, and you will salary labor into the Africa’, in the Endeavor towards town, 23. 2 step one

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